Categorized | Best practices, News, Programming

Programming Your Way out of a Paper Bag

Posted on 11 May 2005 by Demian Turner

I really enjoyed Jeff Moore’s (creator of WACT) post today, I thought I’d post it in its entirety.  It’s a compelling question, what is it that makes some programmers more adept than others?  While this article is a good stab in the right direction, it still doesn’t shed sufficient light on the phenomenon where you have the programmer who is highly intelligent, considerably experienced, with a broad exposure to CS concepts but not a particularly good software maker.

An article on Java World, Hiring the phantom Java architect, sparked an interesting debate at the server side
regarding what it means to be a developer versus an architect. I very
much dislike the term architect and like to think of this instead in
terms of programming skill level.

Cognitive science research on
problem solving tries to examine the difference between experts and
novices in a domain. Rather than distinguish between developers and
architects, I think it is better to distinguish between experts and
novices at programming. The Dreyfus model of skill acquisition details
five skill levels to help in this task. Here is a summary from Coding Horror:

Level 1: Beginner

  • Little or no previous experience
  • Doesn’t want to learn: wants to accomplish a goal
  • No discretionary judgement
  • Rigid adherence to rules

Level 2: Advanced Beginner

  • Starts trying tasks on their own
  • Has difficulty troubleshooting
  • Wants information fast
  • Can place some advice in context required
  • Uses guidelines, but without holisitic understanding

Level 3: Competent

  • Develops conceptual models
  • Troubleshoots on their own
  • Seeks out expert advice
  • Sees actions at least partially in terms of long-term plans and goals

Level 4: Proficient

  • Guided by maxims applied to the current situation
  • Sees situations holistically
  • Will self-correct based on previous performance
  • Learns from the experience of others
  • Frustrated by oversimplified information

Level 5: Expert

  • No longer relies on rules, guidelines, or maxims
  • Works primarily from intuition
  • Analytic approaches only used in novel situations or when problems occur
  • When forced to follow set rules, performance is degraded

The Java World article laments about
companies that advertise for experts, but don’t interview for it. I
have to say this struck a nerve with me. Multiple choice tests like the Zend Certification disappoint me. Tests like this don’t measure skill on this scale at all, they measure exposure.

the past, I’ve used a coding sample as an interview question. The code,
about 250 lines, was distilled from an existing system and is horribly
bad in so very many ways, but functional. By showing the code to an
interviewee and asking them what they would do to improve it, I found I
could get a good idea of their skill level. Novices simply had no idea
what to do with it and would just move code around. Sometimes they
would insert comments, trying to make the code "better." Some
candidates only found and fixed one problem (there were several major
ones.) No one fixed all the problems. The one person that I interviewed
and didn’t have look at the code (for time reasons), we had to let go.
He simply fooled us at his interview about his skill level. The thing
is that I am certain he could have passed a Delphi certification test.
(like the one I took at Brain Bench.)

Moving from novice to expert programmer takes a very long time. From Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years:

Researchers (Hayes, Bloom) have shown it takes about ten years to
develop expertise in any of a wide variety of areas, including chess
playing, music composition, painting, piano playing, swimming, tennis,
and research in neuropsychology and topology. There appear to be no
real shortcuts: even Mozart, who was a musical prodigy at age 4, took
13 more years before he began to produce world-class music. In another
genre, the Beatles seemed to burst onto the scene with a string of #1
hits and an appearance on the Ed Sullivan show in 1964. But they had
been playing small clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg since 1957, and while
they had mass appeal early on, their first great critical success, Sgt.
Peppers, was released in 1967. Samuel Johnson thought it took longer
than ten years: "Excellence in any department can be attained only by
the labor of a lifetime; it is not to be purchased at a lesser price."
And Chaucer complained "the lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne."

So you can’t become an expert without
experience. However, you can have experience without becoming an
expert. Some people just put in their time and never develop
themselves. So these people may have the answers to the certification
trivia question for their specific environment and be able to get past
the HR resume screeners with their buzzword detectors, but they will
not have the impact that a true expert would have in the same
situation. Just like our Delphi Dud.

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2 Comments For This Post

  1. Adrian Madrid Says:

    Very interesting article. It helps me see where I am and what is need to get where I want. Thanks for sharing it.

  2. Robert Janeczek Says:

    Interesting, interesting 🙂

    I agree mostly with the article, but I seem to have quite different view on Zend Certification. Of course it won`t help with estimating developer`s skill, but I don`t think that`s the point. IMHO Zend Cert will cause that less time will be wasted on beginner-level questions during interviews for advanced-level positions. Questions about kinds of loops available in PHP or different ways to start PHP block inside HTML are nonsense when you try to hire senior developer, but there is no easy way to avoid them in PHP. Why? Because in this language one can write horrible code and still have good effects in some projects :]

    Zend Certification will give me the option to avoid all this boring stuff during interviews and that`s why I`ll take the exam. I don`t like the questions (at least the available examples) too, but I prefer to answer them once as opposed to having to do it all over again each year or so.

    Hopefuly there will be some kind of Zend Super Duper Engineer certification in future, let`s hope it will be smarter and more fun. For now, I`m happy to take the base-level exam.

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